Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Blooms Taxonomy of Education and its use in Nursing Education Essay

Blossoms Taxonomy of Education and its utilization in Nursing Education - Essay Example It is obvious that ceaseless disease is normally hopeless. The signs of these ceaseless infection factors are steady and unremitting; therefore, as respects discernment, the accentuation of nursing ought to be on care, strong, and precaution methodology when a patient experiences unavoidable malady weakening. The attendants and other human services suppliers need to figure out how to oversee constant sicknesses with the end goal for them to have the option to enable incessantly sick patients to accomplish freedom. A suitable self-administration plan for ceaseless infection is one of the major psychological difficulties to attendants (Larkin and Burton, 2008). So as to effectively achieve this, social insurance experts ought to have the option to review data about the patient (information), comprehend the issues stood up to by the patient (perception), apply the information picked up from associating with the patient and the other clinical staffs (application), separate suspicions from realities (investigation), build up a complete consideration plan (union), and assess the worth and nature of the consideration plan (assessment). Then again, the ‘affective domain’ centers around emotions, center expectations, and perspectives, and in this manner is firmly appropriate to the mindful calling of attendants (Emerson, 2007). It is imperative that incessantly sick patients are engaged and motivated to support themselves. Along these lines, medical attendants ought to figure out how to listen mindfully and genuinely to their patients (getting), to demonstrate excitement to react (reacting), to communicate responsibility and create individualized treatment plan (esteeming), to hold onto proficient moral codes as respects the board of ceaseless sickness (association), and to work in a group (disguising values). The third domainâ€the ‘psychomotor’â€involves exercise of engine aptitudes, coordination, and physical viewpoints (Quinn, 2000). Inside this space, the medical caretaker ought to figure out how to watch and look at the conduct of an incessantly sick patient to another patient (impersonation). Along these lines,

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Implications of Clonal Genome Evolution for Cancer Medicine Essay

Ramifications of Clonal Genome Evolution for Cancer Medicine - Essay Example Moreover, the creators show their degree of information on the current point in that it is quite familiar passing by the data introduced before, present and future use of hereditary qualities in the treatment of malignancy. The above suggests that the creators have a gigantic bank of information on the issue. This is a reality that is hard to discredit as even the terms applied in the article just slime skill in the field by even the examinations verified parts of cells as found in the exploration work. Something like this must be finished by an individual with sufficient information on the current issues, and not any individual who thinks they have satisfactory data on the point, which is the situation with this article. So as to interest the feelings of the crowd, the creators apply various techniques that prove to be useful to content conveyance. In that capacity, the writers apply realities and the educational idea of the article to engage the crowd in that, by being founded on a science subject, it delivers data legitimately. Comparable to this, the article doesn't leave the crowd to look for the significant point for themselves yet rather, contains each sort of data that the crowd would need to appreciate. The poignancy of the article starts with the immediate articulation of the thought process or objectives of the article and graduates to the advancement of malignant growth, which is given realities about evolutionism, and afterward goes further to make derivations of the ramifications of the history to present day times.... th a solid feeling of expert in hereditary qualities dependent on the language applied to convey the substance, which is a non-reluctant progression of word after word, which all show how much intrigue the creator has. All things considered, the creators express their enthusiasm for the issue following the endeavors that have been made in the field of medication so as to inch nearer to some type of treatment and comprehension of malignant growth and its suggestions. In view of this, the article shows how much the writers have experienced so as to convey the substance, which is additional confirmation of their personal stake in the subject of advancement and malignant growth for the crowd to focus. Moreover, the creators show their degree of information on the current point in that it is truly familiar passing by the data introduced on the past, present and future use of hereditary qualities in the treatment of malignant growth. The above infers that the creators have a gigantic bank of information on the issue. This is a reality that is hard to discredit as even the terms applied in the article just slime fitness in the field by even the examinations verified parts of cells as found in the exploration work. Something like this must be finished by an individual with satisfactory information on the current issues, and not any individual who thinks they have sufficient data on the subject, which is the situation with this article. So as to speak to the feelings of the crowd, the creators apply various procedures that prove to be useful to content conveyance. All things considered, the writers apply realities and the instructive idea of the article to speak to the crowd in that, by being founded on a science subject, it delivers data legitimately. Corresponding to this, the article doesn't leave the crowd to look for the significant point for themselves however,

Friday, August 21, 2020

Transactional Analysis Essays

Value-based Analysis Essays Value-based Analysis Essay Value-based Analysis Essay The response of individuals to an administration issue can't generally be envisioned. Be that as it may, we can foresee the sort of reactions our mediations may bring out from individuals. How? The appropriate response is â€with the assistance of value-based examination. At the point when individuals interface in emphatic or non-confident ways, there is a social exchange where one individual reacts to another. The investigation of these social exchanges between individuals is called value-based examination. It is a strategy for examining and getting conduct. Value-based examination was created by ERIC BERNE for psychotherapy during the 1950s. It was advanced by Berne’s book ‘Games People Play (1964)’, the works of Thomas Harris, Muriet James and Dorothy Jougeward and Abe Wagner. Jougeward and Wagner have demonstrated how the ideas of value-based examination can be applied to associations. Objective-The target of value-based examination (TA) is to give better comprehension of how individuals identify with each other so they may create improved correspondence and human connections. TA is are outgrowth of prior Freudian brain science Sigmund. Freud was the first to recommend that there are 3 sources inside the human character that animate, screen and control conduct. The Freudian inner self and superego are significant ideas, however their definitions are hard to comprehend or apply without broad preparing in psychotherapy. In this manner, one of the significant commitments of TA scholars is that they have, it might be said, acquired from Freud however have placed a portion of his ideas into a language that everybody can comprehend and without being prepared specialists, can use for symptomatic reason in understanding why individuals carry on as they do. Personality States According to TA, an exchange is an improvement in addition to a reaction. For eg. in the event that we acclaim someone, that’s an upgrade. The thanks which that individual gives consequently is the reaction. Therefore, exchanges happen between individuals. They can likewise occur between the individuals in our minds. On the off chance that we have an unexpected drive to express something to somebody, we may intellectually hear a voice instructing us not to state it and a fterward a subsequent voice concurring. These individuals in our minds are called self image states. As indicated by BERNE, two individuals collaborate with one another from one of the three mental positions, known as sense of self states. Character COLLECTION OF Behavior His thought regarding human character being multi-faceted was especially persuasive on Berne. This thought paying little heed to what the specific regions of character are named, every individual â€Å"possesses groups that regularly crash into one another. It is these impacts and connections between these character groups that show themselves as an individual’s musings, sentiments, and practices. † (The International Transactional Analysis Association, 1999). Through Freudian hypothesis, these future comprehended as the id, inner self, and superego. Dr. Berne felt that Freud’s proposed structures were more â€Å"concepts and not phenomenological realities:†(Berne D. E. , 2001). Despite the fact that impacted by Freud, his methodology took on an alternate strategy inside and out. Freud accepted that the three parts of character (Id, Ego, and Superego) should have been even so as to accomplish a decent condition of psychological well-being. Berne made a hypothesis that thought about an alternate methodology, one that depended on the first thought of Freud that characters are multi-faceted(Berne D. E. , 2001). Berne adopted the elective strategy to treatment and as opposed to getting some information about it straightforwardly, it appeared that an issue was simpler comprehended by watching the correspondence (verbal and nonverbal) in an exchange. In this manner, rather than meeting the customer straightforwardly, he took an alternate course and would watch the customer in the gathering setting, taking note of the entirety of the exchanges that happened between both the patient and the people engaged with treatment. Likewise appealing to Berne was Federn’s take a shot at investigation, structure, and the numerous parts of the inner self that brought about human exchanges (Turner, 1986). This likewise speaks to the split from the Freudian standard between the psychodynamic scholars and the self image analysts. Likely most remarkable is Erik Erikson, whose life-range hypothesis concentrated more on the sense of self as a different structure, as opposed to a subordinate of the id. Dr. Berne read under Erik Erickson for a long time before striking out all alone. Erickson’s see on the significance of formative life stages was the springboard for Transactional Analysis, as exhibited by the key ideas of this hypothesis. Berne accepted that the character was organized into three distinctive self image states: Parent, Adult, and Child. He moved from accepting these were unimportant â€Å"theoretical concepts† to the possibility that these were straightforwardly recognizable in his patients. Rather than making presumptions dependent on earlier Freudian instructing, Berne would pose the inquiry legitimately to the patient, asking which state was at present speaking(Prochaska, 2010). Organically, there is proof that served to likewise bolster the advancement of Transactional Analysis. Dr. More stunning Penfield, a neurosurgeon from McGill University in Montreal, Canada was trying different things with the impacts of applying electrical flows to explicit districts of the brain(Berne D. E. , 2001). From this he found that by invigorating certain regions, it delivered significant recollections, which assisted with uncovering a person’s past, went with sentiments and feelings that went with these overlooked recollections. The immediate impact on Berne because of these investigations was as per the following: - the human mind acts from multiple points of view like a camcorder, distinctively recording occasions. While that occasion may not really have the option to be intentionally recovered by the proprietor, the occasion consistently exists in the cerebrum. - both the occasion and the emotions experienced during that occasion are put away in the mind. The occasion and the emotions are bolted together, and neither one of the ones can be reviewed without the other. - when an individual replays their encounters, the person can replay them in such a distinctive structure, that the individual encounters again similar feelings the individual felt during the genuine encounter (Berne D. E. , 2001). People can exist in two states at the same time. People replaying certain occasions can encounter the feelings related with those occasions, yet they can dispassionately discuss the occasions (Berne D. E. , 2001). This would clarify how a customer could distinguish which â€Å"state† from where the conversation or sentiments are originating from. Berne attempted to help the patient in recognizing the feelings, sentiments, and this turned into the point from which the advancement in treatment could start. It was in 1958 that Berne began the San Francisco Psychiatry Seminars, a little gathering of experts that met to talk about their enthusiasm for social treatment. Turner, 1986). It was during these meetings that a wide range of ways to deal with psychotherapy were examined. The possibility of these classes took off and soon experts intrigued by this kind of conversation were heading out from wherever to join in. His hypothesis turned into a strategy for treatment, through which gauges, preparing, and affirmation were created . Key Concepts/Central Propositions The system of this methodology depends on an exchange, which Berne thought about the major unit of social intercourse. He likewise utilized the phrasing of â€Å"strokes†, which he characterized as â€Å"units of social recognition† (Turner, 1986) He drew on crafted by Rene Spitz, who took a gander at why newborn children experienced inability to flourish. Spitz did concentrates on youngsters in shelters and the staggering impacts of absence of contacting and supporting of the kid. It was through these investigations that Berne built up the idea of the significance of stroking, and how he felt it urgent for human endurance. He developed this thought of the physical touch and regard for incorporate that of verbal exchanges also. He characterized a stroke as â€Å"the key unit of social action† (Berne D. E. , 2001). Berne’s hypothesis of Transactional Analysis investigated this thought of stroking, in light of the supposition that individuals spend their lives looking for strokes (Turner, 1986). These strokes can be negative, positive, contingent, and unrestricted and can be given verbally, nonverbally, and truly. It is by knowing your own and your client’s â€Å"stroke economy†, it creates data on how you can issue comprehend (Witkin, 1988) together (Turner, 1986). Berne additionally built up the possibility of three personality expresses; this is notwithstanding the investigation of the collaborations between people. He characterized the inner self state as â€Å"a predictable example of feeling and experience straightforwardly identified with a relating reliable example of conduct (Berne D. E. , 2001). Berne saw as he worked with his customers that they had various showcases of conduct that continually changed during his advising meetings. He would see that the individual had diverse â€Å"states of being†, which he started to allude to as the â€Å"adult, youngster, and parent†. Not in the least mirroring the id, sense of self, and superego; these ideas remained all alone as phenomenological real factors. He had the option to affirm these conscience states with recognizable practices that could be estimated, in this way making a reasonable spot in mainstream researchers. Berne made one of a kind definitions for the three conscience states, Parent, Child, and Adult, which were all the fundamental texture for his hypothesis. He felt that youngster were generally impacted by their folks, in this way the initial barely any long periods of life were spent gathering and recording what as experienced and displayed to them. This incorporates the qualities, ethics, and convictions educated by the guardians. When

Friday, May 29, 2020

Social Class and Bram Stokers Dracula - Literature Essay Samples

The issue of social class and its effects upon society in Victorian-era Europe is a theme central to Bram Stokers novel Dracula. On the surface, the novel seems to be a story of a battle between good and evil; upon further analysis, it could be seen as a battle between high and low social classes. The vampire Dracula is a quintessential aristocratic figure, one who prides himself on his superior bloodlines in more ways than one. The people who slay him are of assorted nationality, gender, ethnicity, and economic privilege. Through the interactions between characters of various socioeconomic status, Stoker illustrates the class-based prejudices operative in a society.The earliest explicit example of this is Draculas almost boastful description of his family and heritage in chapter I. The Count asserts, on behalf of his ancestors and himself, that in our veins flows the blood of many brave races (p. 33). This is a curious comment because of its obvious double meaning. While Dracula is using the word blood as it is commonly used, that is, as metaphor for ancestry and heritage, he is also using it in a literal sense: as a vampire, the blood of many people does flow through his veins. However, neither the reader nor Jonathan Harker yet know of Draculas blood-drinking habit, so this comment could easily be passed over as a description of Draculas social status. It is only later, after the nature of the Counts character is revealed, that both the ambiguity and the twisted humor of this phrase become apparent.In the same passage, Dracula uses the word race interchangeably with the word family or ancestry. This is another example of a possible double meaning that foreshadows what the reader will learn about Dracula. Like the idea of blood being both literal and figurative, the idea of race can be thus interpreted. As a vampire, Dracula truly is a member of a distinct race, perhaps even a distinct species. His gruesome lineage (or taxonomy) ensures him not only respect a mong the lower-ranking Transylvanians, but physical power greater than that of other men, even immortality. In telling Jonathan Harker the story of his ancestry, Dracula speaks about events in the plural first-person, implying that he might have been present: as an immortal vampire, this is very likely. However, both of these statements can be interpreted figuratively: the skeptic Harker does not readily accept the gory nature of Draculas tale.Indeed, all that is immediately evident is the Counts emphasis on both the nobility and the achievements of his heritage. For example, Dracula claims to be descended from Attila the Hun, a powerful, violent and fearsome warrior. According to Dracula, this power is directly proportional to purity of lineage: when his distant ancestors mated with the devils in the desert, power and glory of the vampire race was sacrificed. The mention of other supernatural beings, such as devils and witches should be noted: although easy to bypass as metaphoric hyperbole, Dracula might be speaking literally of the superiority of vampires over not only humans beings, but other monsters (p. 34).Whether or not Dracula is implying supernatural heritage, his pride in being what he considers a member of an elevated social class is apparent. The Count explicitly considers himself to be a boyar, or a member of the privileged class, which has ensured him not only monetary fortune but an elevated status among the peasants in his land (p.26). This nobility sets him apart from the common Transylvanian, whom he considers to be a coward and a fool, (p. 27). These qualities are starkly contrasted with those of his own race of fearsome warriors.Unfortunately, Jonathan Harker does not pick up on the double meaning of the Counts life story. Although he enjoys Draculas storytelling and even seems vaguely impressed by his social status, he is not intimidated by what is a discreet warning of Draculas potential power. Initially, Harker even sides with Dracula concerning the ignorance of the local peasants. Here we see that although he is a man largely driven by pragmatism, Jonathan Harker is not without class-based biases of his own. As a civil worker he does not rank highly on the socioeconomic scale, but he is not a peasant, and so scorns the beliefs and practices of the Transylvanian commoners accordingly. He dismisses their practices as superstition, but in this assertion there is an element of disdain wholly separate from his conflicting spiritual beliefs. Jonathan Harker is not rich, but he is both educated and Anglican. The Romanian peasants are uneducated and heavily reliant upon Catholic relics as protection against evil, and are therefore considered by Jonathan to be ridiculous and idolatrous(p. 13). However, Jonathan has a change of heart when he realizes that the crucifix he accepts from a peasant woman is his only protection from Dracula once he is imprisoned in the castle. Harkers acceptance of practices he previously shunn ed represents a vindication of the common person, which is a theme echoed by Bram Stoker at several points in the text.The social disparity between men and women is another example of the theme of class in the novel. The most pronounced and, curiously, the least developed of these instances is demonstrated through the characters of the three weird sisters. These female vampires whom Dracula keeps imprisoned in his castle represent the kept woman common during the Victorian era. Indeed, the sisters are kept by the Count in the most literal way: they are not permitted to hunt, leave the castle, or even prey upon Jonathan Harker without Draculas consent. This can be interpreted as a parallel to the role of many women at the time, who were not permitted to do anything outside of the home without the permission of their male superior. Of course, the example of the weird sisters is clearly hyperbolic, even humorous, as the average Victorian woman wasnt concerned with hunting human prey in the first place, and could most likely eat when she chose.However, the subjugation of the three vampire sisters is even more interesting when Draculas opinion of the vampire race is taken into account. As mentioned earlier, Dracula speaks at length about the superiority of the vampire race to the human race. The weird sisters, being vampires, are undeniably part of the same race as Dracula. It is curious, then, that Dracula shows more hospitality towards Jonathan Harker than he does to his own kind, even though he ultimately intends for Jonathan to be a victim. It would have been easy enough for Dracula to drain Jonathans blood the moment he entered the castle, yet he does not. Although he is a monster, Dracula seems genuinely interested, at least for a short time, in the knowledge of the outside world that Harker brings with him, and attempts to disguise his bloodthirsty nature from the clerk for as long as possible. Dracula does not seem to ever extend the same courtesy to his fe male captives, even though they should be, by his own standards, elevated above Jonathan in their social status. Thus the issue of sexism within the larger realm of class bias is present in this novel.Perhaps the most explicit example of the effects of social class is illustrated by the events leading up to Lucy Westenras death. When Dracula begins to prey upon the young woman, the somewhat unorthodox doctor Van Helsing demands a series of blood transfusions to save her life. Although her life is ultimately lost, the blood transfusions occur in a noteworthy manner: blood is taken from donors in descending order of social status. The first man to donate blood to Lucy is Arthur Holmwood, Lucys fiance and a wealthy member of the Victorian gentry. The second donor is John Seward, a working-class doctor and well-respected member of society. Van Helsing transfuses his blood next: he is third in rank because although he is a distinguished doctor, scholar and lawyer, he is also a foreigner. The final blood that Lucy receives comes from Quincey Morris, a Texan transplanted in Victorian England. Despite being strong, charismatic and courageous, Americans are lower on the ladder than even Dutchmen; so Morris donates last.Although Van Helsing claims that A brave mans blood is the best thing on this earth when a woman is in trouble, the quality of the blood seems to depend less on bravery than on social status: clearly, some brave men are better for the job than others (p.136). The way that Stoker has arranged this hierarchy is not likely coincidental, but neither is it without irony. By the conclusion of the novel, Quincey Morris, the lowly American, is depicted as the most celebrated hero among these men.Despite the many instances of class-based prejudice in this novel, Bram Stokers Dracula has, overall, a resounding theme of hope. Though it is not apparent throughout the novel, by its conclusion Stoker is clearly rooting for the underdog. The end of Stokers Dracula port rays a world in which feeling has triumphed over reason, bravery has conquered fortune, and human resilience is proved superior to social status. Members of the higher class ultimately suffer: Dracula is slain by the human beings he once terrorized, and Mrs. Westenra, an aristocratic woman, sabotages her own fate and the fate of her daughter when she innocently ignores the protective talismans offered by Van Helsing. This does not mean that lower-class characters escape unscathed: the Transylvanian peasants, though eventually freed from the plague of Dracula and the weird sisters, have lost loved ones to the vampires hunger. Quincey Morris, the resilient American, dies as a casualty of Draculas execution, and Van Helsings controversial remedies do not save Lucy from the vampires fate. However, Morris is immortalized in name and memory with the birth of the Harkers first child. The peasants, though not present in the final action of the novel, have the retrospective distinction of be ing right about Dracula all along. Van Helsing indirectly saves all of London; even Jonathan Harker, for all his flawed suppositions, emerges as the hero when he is instrumental in the slaying of Dracula. He and his bride, Mina, are ultimately freed from the grasp of the vampire, and even manage to come into an unlikely fortune along the way, ensuring middle-class comfort for the rest of their lives. Thus, these lower-ranking citizens are vindicated, even celebrated, by the end of the novel.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Bombing Of Lahore, Pakistan - 1641 Words

On Easter Sunday, Lahore, Pakistan was next in a growing list of countries attacked on a large by a suicide bomber in the past six months. The bombing, later claimed by Taliban affiliate Jamaat-ul-Ahrar, targeted a park populated with Christian women and children celebrating the holiday. Photos of bloody victims and rescuers soon surfaced as well as first-hand accounts of the explosion. The sheer horror and violent nature of the story and the photos as well as the constant international attention on terrorism makes the story impactful and fits with the unfortunately familiar narrative that has developed in the post-9/11 world. The story broke on Easter morning all over the world, and therefore, it fits four of the five criteria that Doris Graber and Johanna Dunaway set in Mass Media and American Politics for how stories are deemed newsworthy (113-114). However, the final criterion, proximity, is the significant in regards to how the Lahore bombing was and continues to be covered in m ainstream media. Both National Public Radio (NPR) and Al Jazeera posted articles on Easter Sunday after the bombing, and while many aspects of the articles are the same, there exist key differences. NPR’s status as a semi-publically owned American media company and Al Jazeera’s status as a government owned Qatari media accompany account for those difference in their coverage the Lahore, Pakistan attacks. The revolution of the new news accounts for their similarities. NPR posted its story,Show MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Media Coverage On Public Perception1701 Words   |  7 PagesNatida Nivasnanda Taking A Position Essay In Beirut, amongst a crowded marketplace, two ISIS supporters detonated themselves in order to massacre as many men, women, and children of all faiths (Miller, 2015). 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Gold Affect And Effect - 1308 Words

The Gold affect and effect It’s the beginning of the end of the world: outrageous 5p carrier bag charges, a horrendous new layout of snapchat, extortionate 2p increases of Freddo bars and the sickening new shape of Toblerone bars. But now it’s gone a step too far. The Hollywood power couple, Brangelina have split. How can humanity live our everyday lives with this catastrophic news? Although exaggerated, the above is just as hyperbolic as the number of innocent athletes accused of taking performance enhancing drugs– which could be the end of some athletes’ careers. The 2016 Olympic games saw around 11,200 athletes, 366 of which were Team GB, battle their way to the reach the top of the podium in individual and team events. Despite†¦show more content†¦However, when looking at the released records, none of the athletes actually broken the law – it just seems that way due to the media taking its information out of context by seeing the word â€Å"banned† and presuming it’s a PED, as well as the original records being changed by the deceiving hackers. Which not right to do, as athletes with Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs) have permission to take these banned drugs due to their medical and have been tested, rigorously, to ensure there are no other alternatives. Something which the majority public may be unfamiliar with these medical terms. But, after many months, the media have conflated together PEDs and TUEs, tricking us into believing that TUEs are the same as PEDs. To understand the power of rumours in the media one only needs to look at the case of Mo Farah – the 2012 and Rio Olympic game’s gold medallist, track superstar and one of Britain’s greatest ever athlete. However, despite his great amount of success and the sense of pride he has given us, speculation around Farah started when his previous coaches were investigated for doping offences. The media then cleverly sussed out the truth of the situation and pointed towards Mo Farah – suggesting he was doping. Never once considering that he was innocent and won his medals fairly. A furious Farah was then forced into doing press conference after press conference to clean himself (and his reputation) from the media’s muck. In a heated interview with aShow MoreRelatedPrice Elasticity of Gold852 Words   |  4 PagesPrice Elasticity of Gold Group name: In-Demand The general inverse relationship between price and demand is a key fundamental in economics. A rise in price is known to shrink demand and vice versa. However, another important factor in economics is the price elasticity of demand, which can be interpreted as the percentage change in demand relative to the percentage change in price. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Feminism in bamas novels free essay sample

A Study of Bama’s Sangati â€Å"When I was born/ Mother wept, saying â€Å"A row of worries/Endless trouble. † (37) -Imayam Caste and gender are the two important identity building mechanisms that create a Dalit Feminist perspective. Dalit feminism redefines woman from the socio-political perspective of a Dalit, taking into account the caste and gender oppression. This critique focuses on three aspects, firstly the oral narrative style that Bama, a Tamil, Dalit writer adapts to tell the stories, secondly the legends and songs that she has woven into her text and thirdly using the food trope to narrate an alternate her story. Though this article focuses on Sangati, her second novel, I will also refer to Karrukku, Bamas seminal first work. Born as Fatima in 1958 in Puthupatti village in Viruthungar district in Southern Tamilnadu, Bama wrote Karukku in 1992 which brought with it the force of whirlwind to whip the literary world with its quintessentially Dalit theme and language. We will write a custom essay sample on Feminism in bamas novels or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Karukku which means the searing edges of palmyra leaves, discusses the life of a Dalit Catholic Christian woman in retrospect and focusses the caste based atrocities in her village, experiences of untouchability in the catholic convent and the final breaking away from the nunnery. Sangati, her next work bears the news of the plight of girls and women in her rural community. Kisumbukkaran and Vanmam are her other noteworthy works. Bama does not have a defined women’s literary tradition in Tamil. She observes, â€Å"until recently women writers in Tamil have moulded their writing on the male literary tradition† (Kanal 30). Bama pioneers in the creation of a Tamil Dalit Feminist tradition. A. Marx, writer and critic feels that African Americans were brought as slaves to America before four hundred years and their literature is two hundred years old whereas Dalits belong to India and two thousand years of Indian history has denied them literary space. Interestingly Bama uses the spoken language of her people for her works. She says, †¦every dominant literature should be inverted. This process of inversion can be seen in the Tamil oral traditionthe folklore. There are traces of the agony and ecstasy of the Dalits, the direct and emotional outbursts, the collective identity, the mockery and caricature of the immediate oppressors, the supernatural powers of oracle and the mythical heroism: these are the several elements for the construction of a conscious Dalit literature. (97-98) Bama uses a language unfamiliar to the mainstream, upper caste society to write her works. She discards the so called â€Å"chaste† Tamil made unavailable for her people but employs the oral folk language, which is familiar to her society. Unlike other writers who have dealt with Dalit life in Tamil like Sivakami, Vidivelli and Imayam, who use the Dalit language only in dialogues between their characters, Bama writes her whole work in the language of her community. Bama uses a language unfamiliar to the mainstream, upper caste society to write her works. She discards the so called â€Å"chaste† Tamil made unavailable for her people but employs the oral folk language, which is familiar to her society. Unlike writers like Sivakami, Vidivelli and Imayam, who use the Dalit language only in dialogues between their characters, Bama writes her whole work in the language of her community. This can pose a challenge to a reader unfamiliar to the nuances of the Dalit language. Sangati does justice to its title by narrating the news, happenings and events in the lives of several Dalit women. Bama records the struggles, tribulations, frustrations as well as the triumphs, joys and survival of Dalit women. The narrator who is a young girl in the early chapters grows pensive due to the myriad events happening around her. As she grows into a young woman she stresses on the need for change and is calling out for action against atrocities that happen to the girls and women in her community. What we notice is that struggle and success are discussed in most of the stories that are told. Be it Vellaimma Kizhavi, the narrator’s courageous grandmother, a single mother who pawned her thali,the sacred symbol of her marital status to feed her children, Katturaasa’s mother who bore her son by herself while cutting grass or the story of Marriamma who must get back to work soon after attaining puberty, there is no romantizisation of poverty, but a brave practical approach to it. In the process of narrating these incidents Bama discusses the many atrocities committed against girls and women in her community. The fact that boys are preferred to girls in families, women are beaten up by their husbands, women are paid much less though they do the same hard labour, the sexual harassment at workplace and the injustice meted out to Dalit women in village courts. In Sangati, Bama subverts mainstream legends and asks relevant questions pertaining to her culture. The story of Thiruvallvar, the great Tamil poet’s wife Vasuki, perceived as the epitome of chastity and devotion to husband is mentioned to illustrate the subordinate position of women in marriage. The story she feels is a reminder that wives ate after husbands even during Thiruvalluvar’s time. Bama offers an alternate folk song about Ananatamma of West street, who was beaten up for eating crab curry before serving her husband: O Crab, Crab, my pretty little crab, who wandered through all the fields I planted I pulled off your claws and put you on a pot, I gave the pot a boil and set it down. I waited and waited for him to come home, And began eating as came through the door. He came to hit me the, the hungry brute, He pounced at me to kill me†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (30) Veliamma’s stories about the spirits that haunted Dalit women make Bama conclude that these stories are concocted to push women to subservient position. Dalit women are an easy prey to these stories because of their repressed state. Overworked and exploited both in the family and in society, these women give vent to their mental agony in their spirit-possessed state. In her attempt to write a ‘her story’, Bama makes interesting references to food enjoyed by her people. Traditionally in most homes the kitchen is a limited space designated for women. But over the years women have transformed this space into an area of discourse that gives them a semblance of power. In Sangati, Sammuga Kizhavi’s mouthwatering description of ragikuuzh eating is thought provoking. She describes it as â€Å"nectar from heaven† (37). Every sunday, the narrator’s patti made a special kuzhambu with cow’s intestine which went well with ragi kali. There is also mention of patti’s hot kuzhambu with dried fish. In Karukku Bama brings to light the gugapusai at Chinnamalai, the highlight of the festival is slaughter of rooster, goat or pig. There is immense joy in cooking the food and feasting the delicacy. By subverting simple acts of cooking, feeding and sharing food, Bama brings the novel alive before our eyes. KanchaIlliah in his thought provoking work Why I am Not A Hindu, mentions that certain kinds of rich food like ghee and milk were seldom available for the economically downtrodden dalits in the rural areas. But Bama celebrates the food that is cooked and served by the womenfolk in her community. There is great joy in discovering other more healthy and nutritious options. The food metaphor helps in the narrating of her stories earlier neglected or misrepresented in mainstream writing. By discussing the narratives of many women from the Dalit community Bama places before us the rural Dalit woman’s identity. Though the struggle is much owing to the double oppression of caste and gender, we notice that their strength is also revealed. The women stand by each other to help each other when there is injustice meted out not only in society but in family circles as well. Bama doesn’t shy away from describing violent domestic or street quarrels. In Sangati we hear the voices of many women, some in pain, some in anger, some in frustration and some out of courage. Sometimes the language is full of expletive with sexual undertones. Bama suggests that it is the sharp tongue of a woman that can protect her against her oppressors. The characters often break in to a song or a chant when the situation demands and there is a song for every occasion.. But what is thought provoking is Bama’s sketching a positive identity for the Dalit woman. An alternate her story as opposed to the mainstream is drawn with vivid descriptions of a marriage ceremony, attaining of puberty ceremony, joy of togetherness, singing songs, cooking and sharing food. In most rural homes the Dalit woman is an earning member, widow re-marriages are possible and tali or the sacred thread worn as a chain during the marriage is not this binding symbol as in other communities. It is interesting that the Dalit woman cannot be suppressed in spite of caste, gender oppression. FEMINISM The novel deals with the struggle, both in America and in Africa, of women to gain recognition as individuals who deserve fair and equal treatment. Male dominance is the norm in both countries. As Albert says Men spose to wear the pants. It takes various forms, not least of which is sexual aggression. In the very first letter, Celie tells of the abuse she suffers at the hands of the man she believes for a long time is her father. Mary Agnes is raped by the white uncle whom she approaches for help to get Sofia out of prison and Mr (Albert) also tries to force Nettie to submit to him before she leaves the house after fighting him off. Celies sexual encounters with her husband, Mr- are sordid and unloving Just do his business, get off, go to sleep As Shug remarks, Celie make it sound like he going to the toilet on you. Physical violence also seems to be a common occurrence, even in relationships which are quite loving, like that between Harpo and his wife Sofia. He beats her because the woman spose to mind. It is a respectable thing for a man to do to his wife, in his view. Women are exploited very seriously, especially Celie, who is married off to Albert to look after his children and is expected to work on the farm and submit without objection to all of Alberts demands and those of the children. She is also meant to accept Alberts affair with Shug Avery, which extends even to him sleeping with her under the same roof. In fact fidelity is not seen as an important quality by men, although the same behaviour in females is cause for comment. Notice how the preacher attacks Shug by implication because of her loose lifestyle, but men are allowed to behave as they wish. The novels message is that women must stand up against the unfair treatment they receive at the hands of men and that they must do this by helping one another. The women in the novel, even those who have interests in the same men, nevertheless band together to support and sustain one another throughout the novel. The bond of sisterhood is important, both literally in the persons of Nettie and Celie, Sofia and Odessa and metaphorically in the persons of Mary Agnes and Sofia, Alberts sister and Celie, Tashi and Olivia and of course Shug Avery and Celie, who embody the twin roles of sisters and lovers in their relationship. Some of the women in the novel have learned to fight for themselves. Sofia is powerful and physically strong. She is not subservient and has great strength of character as well. She can and does fight for what she wants, but of course her aggression results in her dreadful experience at the hands of the police  after she dares to talk back to the white mayor, and her subsequent sentence to drudgery as the mayors servant lasts for many years. The bond between her and Mary Agnes is stronger than their mutual claim on Harpos affections. Mary Agnes endures rape for Sofias sake in order to get her released from prison, and when Mary Agnes goes off to be a singer it is Sofia who looks after her child. Shug Avery is the most liberated of the women in the novel, although she also suffers verbal attack from the church elders because of her lifestyle. Her career as a blues singer enables her to experience much more freedom than the other women whose lives are bound by home, work and child care. She is also much more sexually liberated than many other females, having numerous affairs and enjoying her sexuality with no restraints or false guilt.. She has, also, a strong belief in God which is unfettered by convention and her relationship with Celie is a central theme of the novel. It is Shug who liberates Celie in all aspects of her life, guiding her into emotional, sexual and financial independence and combining the roles of sister, friend and lover. Snug possesses equality because of her own integrity as a person, and she passes this on to Celie. It is no accident that the enterprise which gains Celie her independence is, paradoxically, a womans job- sewing but the product is trousers, for women to wear. Masculine and feminine temperament are also addressed in the novel. Shug is described by Albert as being more manly than most men, but as Celie rightly points out to him, those qualities of independence, honesty and integrity are equally valid as womanly qualities. It is a barbaric custom and Nettie feels helpless to influence the tribe or to help the victims. The saddest part of the African experience is the way in which the people of the tribe are exploited by the white traders who drive their roads into the interior obliterating ancient settlements and destroying lifestyles which have lasted for centuries. The Olinka are hospitable and give the builders food while they destroy the village and the roof leaf supplies. Alice Walker gives us a sad portrait of a dying lifestyle and an obsolete people. There is a strong sense of outrage that people are driven out of their rightful homes for foreign (white) economic gain, forced to pay for the privilege of living in corrugated huts and becoming prey to disease because their yam crops are destroyed Ultimately Samuel and Nettie are forced to leave and return to America. The link between the people in Georgia and the Africans is that both are victims of white oppression, but tragically, despite their common heritage, they can be of no help to one another.